17 Eye Defects, Examinations, and Treatment

The eyes are your organ of sight. Impairment to this sense of sight causing partial or total loss of visual acuity is a condition termed as an optical defect. A global estimate suggests that the magnitude of visual impairment accounts at least 13 million children and 45 million working-age adults. This staggering statistics of visual defects needs immediate attention to eliminate the significant risk factors of eye diseases and eye conditions.

Eye Defects

The Following is a list of Top 17 Eye Defects:

1) Astigmatism: It is a refractive error which means that the spherical curvature of the cornea is deviated resulting in blurred or distorted vision. It is a common vision problem and can be corrected with eyeglasses or refractive surgeries.

2) Blepharitis: It is an infection in the eyelids. Symptoms include itchy, reddened, greasy, swollen eyelids that cause discomfort and affects your vision to some extent. Blepharitis is usually harmless and does not result in vision loss.

3) CMV Retinitis: Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a sight-threatening inflammation in the retina of the eye. Primarily associated with diseases that weaken your immune system such as AIDS.

4) Corneal Transplant: Also known as keratoplasty or a corneal graft is a surgical procedure to replace the broken part of your cornea with corneal tissues from a donor. Corneal transplant is needed to address Keratoconus or degenerative conditions or emergencies such as infection or damage.

5) Conjunctivitis: Commonly known as pink eyes is the inflammation or infection or redness of the outermost layer of your eyes caused by allergic reactions or UV rays. Depending on the type of conjunctivitis your doctor will prescribe you antiviral medications or antibiotics to improve your eye condition.

6) Eye Allergies: Eye allergy occurs due to allergic reactions, and they can make your eyes red, itchy, watery and puffy. An eye-drop prescribed by your doctor can provide you quick relief in this condition.

7) Eye Floaters and Spots: These are small, dark, shadowy shapes that may look like cobwebs or strings that float around in your field of view. These are usually harmless but if they tend to block your sight then book an appointment with your doctor promptly to avoid further complications such as the torn retina, tumor in the eyes, etc.

8) Hyperopia: It is also known as farsightedness. It is a refractive error, a condition when you have difficulty seeing objects that are near to you. Typical symptoms include blurry vision, headache, squinting, eye-strains, etc.

9) Keratoconus: It is a condition that affects your cornea. Your cornea becomes thinner at its center which causes it to bulge outwards in an irregular shape.

17 Eye Defects, Examinations, and Treatment

10) Low Vision: It is a term used to describe the loss of significant visual acuity due to disease or brain injury, or it can also be inherited. It cannot be corrected fully with glasses, lenses, medications or surgeries.

11) Myopia: It is also known as nearsightedness. It is a refractive error where people struggle to see objects that are far away.

12) Ocular Hypertension It commonly means that the pressure inside your eyes which is known as intraocular pressure (IOP) is higher than the normal. It can cause glaucoma, a disease if remained untreated can result in irreversible vision loss.

13) Photophobia: Experiencing discomfort or pain in eyes due to exposure to light is photophobia. Wearing sunglasses and photochromic lenses during daylight provides some degree of comfort in this condition.

14) Retinitis Pigmentosa: Also known as RP is an inherited disease-causing retinal degeneration. People suffering from Retinitis Pigmentosa experience night blindness, loss of peripheral vision, loss of central vision and loss of color vision.

15) Sty or hordeolum: It is a bacterial infection that results in a red tender lump at the edge of the eyelids. You can learn to prevent and treat styes with Lebanon Optometrist Dr. Durocher of OPMT (Optometric Physicians of Middle Tennessee)

16) Amblyopia: Commonly known as “lazy eye,” amblyopia is noted by reduced vision because the vision center of the brain does not mature suitably. It is most common in children and can be treated if detected in early stages. It is estimated that around 5% of children of U.S suffers from amblyopia.

17) Uveitis: This is the swelling of the middle layer of your eyes, uvea, that can destroy the tissues of your eyes and lead to permanent vision loss if not treated properly. Therapies and medications can cure this inflammation if diagnosed early.

Eye Examination

An eye examination begins with questions about medical history and eye health, followed by a series of efficient and accurate analysis by the optometrist. This process includes:

  • Glaucoma Test: Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and visual field loss. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant factor for developing glaucoma, so the doctor runs a tonometry test to estimate the stress in your eye and eliminate the risk of possible blindness.
  • Perimetry Test: This test is performed with the help of a computerized instrument called perimeter which flashes light. Here the patient is asked to press a button every time he sees the flash. This test helps your doctor to check for the blind spot in the peripheral vision.
  • Cover Test: This simple test is run to determine how the eyes are working together. The patient is asked to cover their eyes alternatively and focus on a given object.
  • Refraction Test: A digital phoropter is used in this test to correct any defects of refraction by prescribing corrective lenses.
  • Binocular Slit-Lamp Examination: By giving a magnified view of the eye structure this test allows your doctor to examine the health of the eye and trace signs of any diseases and conditions.
  • Dilation Procedure: In this test, the pupil is dilated with eye drops which allows the doctor to capture a better view of the structures inside the eye.
17 Eye Defects, Examinations, and Treatment
Eye Examination


The following is a list of possible procedures that Lebanon Optometrist, Dr. Durocher recommends depending on your condition and results of Eye assessment:

  • Advanced Dry Eye Treatments.
  • Contact Lenses.
  • Low Vision Counseling.
  • Nutritional Counseling.
  • Pediatric Vision Care.

Blindness comes with unavoidable consequences in the form of loss of productivity and the cost of rehabilitation and education of the blind constitutes a significant burden for the individual or the family. Routine eye examination performed by an optometrist, for children and adults ensures that they have access to a healthy and productive life. A comprehensive assessment can treat and prevent problems related to avoidable visual loss and promote and accelerate progress towards individual development.


  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_impairment
  2. http://opmt.com/
  3. http://opmt.com/lebanon-location/
  4. http://www.health.com/eye-health
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